The climate conference COP21 in Paris has reminded us how precarious the state of our climate is at present and how many big steps need to be taken (quickly) to reduce CO2-emissions worldwide and slow down the warming up of the earth. With many countries and especially (inner) cities influencing (or downright forcing) mobility operators in their choice of vehicle mode and particularly the type of fuel used, each sector needs to make quick changes. There are still years to bridge with conventional vehicles and systems before electrically powered autonomous vehicles appear on the scene. But what route are we taking to that future? The e-route or the Hydrogen-route, both part of the same camp. Or can more be squeezed out of our present-day modes, to make them more energy-efficient, leaner and cleaner? Let’s hear the specialists on this topic.